Updated: March 2018

Ryan's daily Supplement/Vitamin Universe totaling ~$8/day.

A good understanding of yourself and your body first. Consistent rhythms and habits for a health first lifestyle second. Good whole natural foods third. Consistent hard workouts fourth. Supplemental nutrition last.

The supplements that I take are designed to complement my body based on my ability to understand what my body responds best to and may be needing at the current moment. I've learned this through being sensitive (meditation helps) to how my body feels after meals, workouts, and supplement ingestion. Further, these supplements are geared to advancing my health and performance towards my personal health goals (health is my number one priority):

  1. longevity - Be the most productive possible for the most years as possible
  2. mental performance - Be creative, sharp, non-anxious, focused, and engaged for the longest time possible
  3. physical performance - Build endurance to compete in triathlons, build muscle while staying lean so that I can look good with my shirt off, and be injury free

These supplements are extra boosts that I give myself to help me accomplish the goals above. With health as my number one priority, I believe that a healthy body and mind will enable me to achieve my other social and economic goals. Therefore, I'm willing to invest in health, just like I would invest in my education (books/classes) or social agenda (bars/events).

$8/day or $240/month that seems like a lot. It is, no doubt. But it is my number one priority. So I've done some things to make this level of spending possible, while rationalizing it for the reasons above. That $8 a day is supporting my long-term health and my current mental and physical performance. It is my life/health insurance, my caffeine/nutropics, and a way to attract good looking mates. It's an investment.

To offset the investment, I do not have a daily spend at coffee shops as I'm free of the stronghold of caffeine (due to the consistent rhythms I employ such as getting 7.5-8hrs of sleep), good quality whole food that I eat which is light in carbs (preventing any post-meal crash I may experience and providing my good quality energy), and some of the supplements that I take such as b vitamins, choline, and a performance mushroom blend. Further, I cook the majority of my meals which is about 85% or 12 out of the 14 meals I eat during the week. I currently only eat two full meals a day with a protein shake (included in the $8/day) and a snack or two mixed in. Because, I eat good whole fresh food, I spend about $10-13/day on groceries which brings my daily total to about $20/day on my food and nutrition. Compare this to someone who eats out for the majority of their meals, this is pretty competitive - $3/coffee + $5/egg sandwich + $8/chipotle + $10/chicken dinner = $26/per day.

I developed my supplement regime through reading the latest research, looking at my genetic tests from 23andMe, and by listening to my body for feedback. Next to each supplement, I put the why behind my reason for taking it as well as any source material that led to my decision to invest in that supplement. As the research into genetics and nutrition changes, my supplement list and my reasons for taking each supplement will update (and I'll update that information here periodically).

I've found that buying bulk powders is the must cost effective way to consume the supplements on the list. I add them together in my shaker bottle and on average take down about 3 separate shakes per day - I'm not optimizing for taste here. I'm constantly cycling through reputable brands to find a cheaper, high-quality product. That said, it's hard to beat the quality of Pure Encapsulations, Thorne, Swanson, Standard Process, and Nordic Naturals. Or the price of Micro Ingredients, Bulksupplements, and MyProtein each of which may be lacking in quality compared to other brands but are very attractive from a price perspective. Do your due diligence before buying anything from the guy on the corner (aka Amazon vendors) selling any substance you will put in your body and don't buy something, just because I use it. Look for brands with NSF certification and use your judgment - you can pay for what you get, and you can pay for a large marketing budget in the supplement industry.

Some supplements are water soluble vs. fat soluble and some have energizing properties while others work best over night. Be sure to understand the properties of the supplements you are taking, if you choose to take them, so that you time them properly (check out our supplement risks page to learn more). The next couple of paragraphs outline my preferred, but not always actual, daily routine.

When I'm doing morning workouts (currently my preferred time to workout and I'm able to do it about 75% of the time), I have a pre-workout shake with 3g Maca, 3g of creatine, 5g leucine, 5g l-arginine, 6g l-citrulline malate (l-arginine + l-citrulline malate has been shown to increase nitric oxide greater than either of them alone [1]), Cataplex B, and 600mg of NAC (NAC + l-arginine has been shown to decrease blood pressure and other favorable blood markers in diabetics [2]). Separately I have a tsp on the Performance Mushrooms with warm water and a tbsp of Coconut oil. On my endurance days, such as a 45min spin session, I will reduce this down to just the Maca, Performance Mushrooms, and Coconut Oil and add a Nuun to my water that I sip on during the ride. This combination gives me the best tradeoff of stomach lightness and comfort with energizing effects that do not spike my heart rate. If I work out in a caffeinated state, I find that my heart rate will spike during my warm-up resulting in a shortness of breath and feeling of fatigue, earlier in my workout due to surpassing my anaerobic threshold (to calculate this I use the heuristic of 220 - age to get my maximum heart rate and then apply 85% to the max to get my anaerobic threshold. There are also at home exercise tests that you can do to determine this more empirically.)

Post workout, my shake contains about 50g of whey protein isolate (which I find to be pretty light and not filling - at least 25g is recommended to stimulate muscle growth [3] but over 50g is not recommended) , 10g of collagen powder, 1tbsp of barley or wheat grass, 1tsp of spirulina or chlorella, 1 tbsp of flaxseed, 2g of creatine, 5g leucine, and 3g of l-citirulline malate. I do not currently add post-workout carbs but will start doing so as I'm currently trying to build muscle and size. However, insulin commonly referred to as a very important anabolic hormone may not be necessary for stimulating muscle growth [4]. On a typical day, I'll finish my workout at 8:30am, have this shake, and then eat lunch at about 11:30am allowing my body the ability to continue to use my fat stores as energy but also getting the muscle building benefits of protein.

Throughout the day, I will have decaffeinated black or green tea with lemon. At lunch, I take my multivitamin, choline, and vitamin d, and I have about a tbsp of fish oil (for the really good omega 3s) and olive oil drizzled all over my salad.

Lastly, in the late afternoon, I'll have another shake with 25g of bone broth protein, 5g leucine, and 3g of l-citrulline malate in an effort to get my protein intake to about 1g per lean muscle (studies have shown that muscles respond best to protein intake throughout the day and not all in one big meal [5])

With dinner, I will take digestive enzymes and a probiotic as our gut lining deteriorates throughout the day [6] leaving the body less capable to digest food, and more insulin resistant. Then at night, I will take another 600mg of NAC, DHA, resveratrol, and about 300mg of magnesium to repair my body as I sleep. My goal is to eat dinner at least 3 hours before bedtime or to stop eating before 7pm (this is my hardest challenge). I want to do this because I have a mutation on a gene rs2305160(C;C) that is related to an increase risk of prostate cancer due to disruptions in the body's circadian rhythm (learn more about the body's circadian rhythm).

As you can see, I'm on a journey to determine what the best structure of supplementation is for me. I first start with outlining my goals, listening to my body, having the right rhythms, and eating whole foods. I know that no amount of supplementation will make up for that - there is no pill that will allow me to stay up 24/7 and eat whatever I want while enabling me to perform at my highest level possible, build muscle, and not get sick. These are refinements, that are driven in large part by my genetic make up as you will see below. If you'd like to dig into your genes visit Rhonda Patrick's site to learn more and I'll work on getting a blog post out on my experience shortly. My workout regime below is geared toward lean muscle building and recovery, while limiting any fillers or untested products.


Link note: Most all product links will take you to Amazon where I've found the most competitive prices online and in-store. If you don't have Prime already, this is a reason to try it out for 30 days free or become an Amazon Prime member for free 2-day deliveries, access to movies and music, as well as the new Whole Foods perks! 

Workout note: Scroll to the very bottom of this page if you're intrigued about my workout supplements for muscle growth, performance, endurance, or recovery. 


Ryan's Workout Supplement Universe totaling $1.76/use. 

Compare to Endo Rush from BSN ($.73 per serving) plus Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey (.$78 per 24g protein) for a total of $1.51 per workout with a lot less of the amino acids that I have below.

Supplement guide

QtyCost/serving
Why I take this supplement, food, or vitamin.
Product link

Water

80oz$0
Your Weight/2 in OZ
 

Multivitamin

1 tab$0.58
MTHFR mutation reducing my ability to convert folic acid into folate. This vitamin has the active form of folate (L-Methylfolate or 5-MTHF) which my body can use without conversion. [7]
Pure Encapsulations O.N.E. Multivitamin | 60 capsules
 

Cateplex B

2 tabs$0.25
Supports energy production
Standard Process Cateplex B | 360 tablets
 

NAC

1.2g$0.16
Increases glutathione which is needed to protect B12 and reduce homocysteine levels due to my MTHFR mutation [8]
Nutricost N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC) 600mg | 180 capsules
 

Vitamin D3

10,000 IU$0.11
I work in an office and I have a mutation on a few genes leading to a 2x increase in the likelihood of deficiency. Bone strength, mood, longevity [9a], and cardiovascular health [9b]
Swanson D3 5,000 IU | 250 softgells
 

Alpha GPC

600mg$0.67
Lower inflamation, supports brain and liver health [10]
Double Wood Alpha GPC Choline | 60 capsules
 

Resveratrol

250mg$0.42
Helps remove damaged stem cells through triggering autophagy (cell death) [11]
Life Extension Optimized Resveratrol | 60 capsules
 

Magnesium (125mg per)

375mg$0.48
Muscle relaxation, workout recovery (testosterone support), and anti-anxiety [12]
Thorne Research Magnesium Citramate | 90 capsules
 

Digestive Enzymes

3 tabs$0.3
Provides enzymes to help break down food to make it more bioavailable and reduce gas (I should also chew my food more)
Whole Foods WholeEnzyme | 90 capsules
 

Probiotics

1 satchet$0.36
Improves gut health leading to better nutrient absorbtion and overall microbiome wellbeing [13]
Visbiome probiotic with 8 strains and 450 billion colony forming units (CFUs) | 30 satchets
 

Fish Oil Blend

1 tbsp$0.65
Skin, eyes, and hair health and fat metabolism and 25% decreased efficiency in converting ALA to DHA/EPA due to rs1535 mutuation [14]
Wild Fish Oil Omega-3 DPA, DHA, EPA Lemon Flavor - menhaden fish | 16 oz
 

DHA

1g$0.77
Lower ADHD markers, decrease brain inflamation, improve cognition - DHA is a building block of grey matter in the brain [15]
Omnibiotics Vegan DHA | 60 capsules
 

MCT oil

1 tbsp$0.44
Endogenous ketone production, fat metabolism, and satiation
SportsResearch Premium MCT Oil | 32oz
 

Bone Broth Protein

22g$1.4
Protein supplementation
Wild Foods Bone Broth Protein Powder - All-Natural, Unflavored, Grass-Fed Bovine Sourced | 1lb
 

Collagen powder

10g$0.33
Joint and skin health [16]
Zammex Premium Hydrolyzed Collagen Peptides - Grass-Fed | 21oz
 

Barley Grass

1 tbsp$0.26
A good source of vitamins and minerals
Bulksupplements Organic Barley Powder | 500 grams
 

Spirulina

3g$0.14
A good source of vitamins and minerals
Micro Ingredients Premium Pure Organic Spirulina Powder | 1lb
 

Chlorella

3g$0.25
A good source of vitamins and minerals
Micro Ingredients Premium Pure Organic Chlorella Powder | 8oz
 

Performance Mushrooms

1 tsp$0.29
Energy and recovery
Laird Superfood Performance Mushroom Blend | 4oz
 

Lemon

1$0.67
Alkalinity, digestion, and taste
Store bought lemons
 

Black and Green Tea

2 bags$0.23
Tannins, theanine, and polyphenols (antioxidants) [17]
Bigelow Decaffeinated Earl Grey Tea Bags
 

Creatine Ethyl Ester HCL (CEE)

5g$0.15
Strength and endurance [18]
MyProtein, Creatine Ethyl Ester HCL (CEE), Unflavored (tastes so bad) | 1.1lb
 

Curcumin

1g$0.38
Anti-inflammatory and pain reduction from soreness [19]
Micro Ingredients Pure Curcumin (Turmeric Curcumin Extract) Powder | 50g
 

Apple cider vinegar

2 tbsp$0.19
Reduces post meal blood glucose concentration [20]
Bragg Usda Organic Raw Apple Cider Vinegar | 32oz
 

Aloe Vera Juice

4 oz$0.5
Laxative effects and lowering fasting blood glucose levels [21]
Whole Foods 365 Aloe Vera | 1 gallon
 

Yerba Mate

2 tsp$0.2
I'm a fast caffeine metabolizer (based on my CYP1A2 gene). Yerba Mate contains two sources of energy, in addition to caffeine allowing for more sustained energy and focus.
Cruz de Malta Yerba Mate | 500g
 

Supplement guide

QtyCost/serving
Why I take this supplement, food, or vitamin.
Product link
 

Arginine Alpha Ketoglutarate (AAKG)

5g$0.2
Nitric oxide booster
MyProtein Arginine Alpha Ketoglutarate (AAKG), Unflavored | 1.1lb
 

L-Citrulline Malate 2:1

11g$0.42
Nitric oxide booster
Micro Ingredients Plant-Based L-Citrulline Malate 2:1 Powder | 1.1 lb
 

L-Leucine

10g$0.3
Promote muscle protein synthesis [22]
MyProtein L-Leucine Unflavored | 1.1lb
 

Whey protien isolate

50g$0.84
99% lactase free and fast digesting protein sources increase muscle protein synthesis to a higher degree than others [23]
MyProtein Impact Whey Isolate Unflavored | 5.5lb
 

1] In rabbits - "l-Citrulline plus l-arginine supplementation caused a more rapid increase in plasma l-arginine levels and marked enhancement of NO bioavailability, including plasma cGMP concentrations, than with dosage with the single amino acids. Blood flow in the central ear artery in rabbits was also significantly increased by l-citrulline plus l-arginine administration as compared with the control." https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X14018178

2] "The NAC + ARG treatment caused a reduction of both systolic (P < 0.05) and diastolic (P < 0.05) mean arterial blood pressure, total cholesterol (P < 0.01), LDL cholesterol (P< 0.005), oxidized LDL (P < 0.05), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), ...." http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/31/5/940

3] "Consuming protein prior to and after the exercise seems to be warranted. Ten grams of essential amino acids or twenty-five grams of a complete protein are sufficient to maximally stimulate protein synthesis." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2732256/#b11-jcca-v53-3-186

4] "Thus, to summarise, EAA regulates anabolic responses via large increases in MPS, while insulin release regulates anti-catabolic (depressions in MPB) responses. It follows that as the change in MPS is far greater than that in MPB, MPS is the major driving force behind nutrient induced anabolism." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3381813/

5] "Areta et al. demonstrated a greater 12 h post-exercise response of myofibrillar-MPS to distributing 80 g of whey protein as 4 × 20 g servings compared with 2 × 40 g servings 6 h apart, or 8 × 10 g servings 1.5 h apart. In a more practical study design, Mamerow et al. demonstrated a greater 24 h resting postprandial response of MPS to a balanced meal pattern that distributed 90 g of protein evenly between three meals (3 × 30 g), spaced 3.5–4 h apart vs. a conventional unbalanced protein meal pattern that biased 70% of daily protein intake towards the evening meal." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4848650/

6] Time restricted eating - interview with Dr. Panda Satchin. "But we know that with time-restricted eating, since our gut repairs itself at night for us, then during fasting time the gut has enough time to repair so that the gut leakiness goes down." - Satchin. "Like, the first thing in the morning, like, it's better to eat...he was saying your high fat meal was more...your gut could handle it better than it could, like, later on in the evening. So it's kind of interesting. But the LPS leakage and all this, very relevant for inflammation." - Rhonda https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/satchin-round-2

7] An overview of methylation cycle. https://www.dietvsdisease.org/mthfr-mutation-symptoms-and-diet/

8] "One of the jobs that glutathione normally does is to protect your supply of vitamin B12 from reacting with toxins. If left unprotected, vitamin B12 is very reactive chemically. If it reacts with toxins, it can’t be used for its important jobs in your body." http://phoenixrising.me/research-2/glutathione-depletionmethylation-blockades-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome/a-simple-explanation-of-the-glutathionemethylation-depletion-theory-of-mecfs-by-rich-von-konynenburg

9a] "Each increase in DHCR7/CYP2R1 allele score was associated with a 1.9 nmol/L lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and with increased all cause, cancer, and other mortality but not with cardiovascular mortality." http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6330

9b] "A major discovery from these studies is that vitamin D3 is a powerful stimulator of nitric oxide (NO), which is a major signaling molecule in the regulation of blood flow and the prevention of the formation of clots in the cardiovasculature. Additionally, vitamin D3 significantly reduced the level of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system." https://www.ohio.edu/compass/stories/17-18/01/vitamin-d3-study-heal-cardiovascular-damage.cfm

10] "Findings from the ATTICA study indicated that subjects whose diets were rich in choline and betaine had the lowest levels of several inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor... Elevated CRP has recently been recognized by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute as a useful marker for cardiovascular disease." "Given the importance of choline in a wide range of critical functions in the human body, coupled with less than optimal intakes among the population and evidence that as much as 50% of the population carry genetic variations that make it necessary to consume choline at levels greater than the AI, it is advised that dietary guidance be developed to encourage the intake of choline-rich foods." - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782876/

11] "Similarly, resveratrol can trigger autophagy in cells from different organisms, extend lifespan in nematodes, and ameliorate the fitness of human cells undergoing metabolic stress." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815753/

12a] "With the omnipresence of processed foods, boiling and consumption of de-mineralized soft water, most industrialized countries are deprived of their natural magnesium supply." "Magnesium is essential for man and has to be consumed regularly and in sufficient amount to prevent deficiency. It is a cofactor in more than 300 enzymatic reactions needed for the structural function of proteins, nucleic acids and mitochondria." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4455825/

12b] "Our results show that supplementation with magnesium increases free and total testosterone values in sedentary and in athletes. The increases are higher in those who exercise than in sedentary individuals." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352370

12c] "Strenuous exercise apparently increases urinary and sweat losses that may increase magnesium requirements by 10-20%. Based on dietary surveys and recent human experiments, a magnesium intake less than 260 mg/day for male and 220 mg/day for female athletes may result in a magnesium-deficient status. Recent surveys also indicate that a significant number of individuals routinely have magnesium intakes that may result in a deficient status. Athletes participating in sports requiring weight control (e.g., wrestling, gymnastics) are apparently especially vulnerable to an inadequate magnesium status." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17172008

13] "The microbes present within the gastrointestinal tract (ie, gut microbiota) have coevolved with the human host to perform a number of functions the host would otherwise be unable to accomplish on its own. Although incompletely understood, the gut microbiota is implicated in a variety of host functions involving intestinal development and function, micronutrient synthesis, and drug metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota also plays an important role in the harvest, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3601187/

14] This is saying that a certain genetic marker (rs1535) is correlated to a reduction in the body's ability to convert Alpha-Linolic Acid, which is an Omega 3 fatty acid that comes from plants into EPA and DHA. All three are needed in the body and have tons of great benefits. "We also found evidence that conversion of the plant n-3 PUFA to longer chain n-3 PUFAs is less effective in people with certain desaturation-gene markers, which could be important for people who do not eat fish" http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1002193

15] "Finally, there is preliminary evidence that DHA may ameliorate cognitive decline and affect behavioral symptoms in major neuropsychiatric disorders such as dementia, schizophrenia and depression." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728620/

16a] “Type I collagen is the major structural protein, being the main extra cellular matrix protein for calcification. It is distributed throughout the whole body accounting for 25% of total body protein and for 80% of total conjunctive tissue in humans.” “The intake of hydrolyzed collagen peptides (HC) in animal models has been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC)” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3750261/

16b] "Oral collagen peptide supplementation significantly increased skin hydration after 8 weeks of intake. The collagen density in the dermis significantly increased and the fragmentation of the dermal collagen network significantly decreased already after 4 weeks of supplementation. Both effects persisted after 12 weeks." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26362110

17a] "Black tea, commonly referred to as “fermented tea”, has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated." https://goo.gl/6NAzXQ

17b] Black and green tea was found to produce statistically significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and blood pressure. http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009934.pub2/full

17c] L-theanine, at realistic dietary levels, has a significant effect on the general state of mental alertness or arousal. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296328

17d] The L-theanine and caffeine combination improved both speed and accuracy of performance of the attention-switching task at 60 min, and reduced susceptibility to distracting information in the memory task at both 60 min and 90 min. These results replicate previous evidence which suggests that L-theanine and caffeine in combination are beneficial for improving performance on cognitively demanding tasks. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681988

18a] "These positive effects were attributed to an increased total creatine pool resulting in more rapid adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration between resistance training sets allowing athletes to maintain a higher training intensity and improve the quality of the workouts along the entire training period." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407788/

18b] "Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect (p < 0.0001) on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices), both tasks that require speed of processing. These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691485/

19] "For centuries it has been known that turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, but extensive research performed within the past two decades has shown that the this activity of turmeric is due to curcumin, a diferuloylmethane. This agent has been shown to regulate numerous transcription factors, cytokines, protein kinases, adhesion molecules, redox status and enzymes that have been linked to inflammation." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2637808/

20a] "Body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both vinegar intake groups (1-2 tbsp) than in the placebo group." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661687

20b] "Subjects consumed white bread (50 g carbohydrate) alone or with 3 portions of vinegar containing 1.1, 1.4, or 1.7 g acetic acid. At 30 minutes post-meal, blood glucose concentrations were significantly reduced by all concentrations of acetic acid as compared with the control value, and a negative linear relationship was calculated between blood glucose concentrations and the acetic acid content of the meal (r = −0.47, P = .001). Subjects were also asked to rate feelings of hunger/satiety on a scale ranging from extreme hunger (−10) to extreme satiety (+10) before meal consumption and at 15-minute intervals after the meal. Bread consumption alone scored the lowest rating of satiety (calculated as area under the curve from time 0-120 minutes). Feelings of satiety increased when vinegar was ingested with the bread, and a linear relationship was observed between satiety and the acetic acid content of the test meals (r = 0.41, P = .004)." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1785201/

21] Aloe vera overview https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2763764/

22] "Leucine is likely the most influential amino acid concerning skeletal muscle protein synthesis." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2732256/#b11-jcca-v53-3-186

23] "These studies demonstrated that WP stimulates muscle protein synthesis to a greater extent than the other protein sources. These results indicated that the greater effect of WP on muscle protein synthesis was due to its high leucine content and rapid aminoacidemia. For these reasons, it has been suggested that WP is superior to other protein sources" https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924180/